|The Inverted Quest of Ashitaka: A Jungian Analysis of Princess Mononoke|
by John Gunston
In Carl Jung's wealth of work involving the human psyche, archetypes and symbolism, he developed a theory of individuation as being the process of integrating the neglected aspects of the personality, thus becoming a more 'whole' individual. He was able to roughly outline what such a process might consist of for one on such a path, and likened it to a spiritual 'quest' for this goal of individuation, not unlike the quests of legendary heroes in mythological tales. Hayao Miyazaki's film Princess Mononoke can be seen as a form of individuation quest, but with a slight inversion: instead of a reality-based individual struggling to reconcile less concrete, perhaps spiritual aspects of their self with their more developed personality, the story of the film represents an intuitive and spiritual person having to accept a humanocentric, progressive, and industrious reality as being an inevitable part of their own life.
In order for this tale to conform to the Jungian format of individuation quest, certain archetypal elements need to be present: some aspect of the Ego-self of the questor in question, as protagonist; a confrontation with some kind of Shadow-aspect(s), which would be the repressed/denied qualities of the Ego-self; the meeting with a contrasexual entity representative of the 'inner other' (the Anima or Animus); and some representation of the person's Self-archetype, a helper and/or wisdom-saturated ideal figure. Ideally, progression through all these stages would lead to the point of integration, at which the Persona (that limited, pragmatic mask of identity constructed to protect oneself) dissolves, and the conscious Ego-self no longer considers itself the entirety, or even necessarily the center, of the individuated personality.
As a general rule it can be said that the need for hero symbols arises when the ego needs strengthening - when, that is to say, the conscious mind needs assistance in some task that it cannot accomplish unaided or without drawing upon the sources of strength that lie in the unconscious mind.
Carl G. Jung, Man and his Symbols
To represent the Ego-self, we have our protagonist, Ashitaka, prince of the Emishi people. He is polite, brave, esteemed, perceptive, skilled, and possesses many other positive qualities, showing no noticeable negative features. Ashitaka is quite representative of what one might expect of an Ego-structure, which is to say that the positive elements are highlit and developed, and the negative elements are denied, ignored, and/or repressed from conscious awareness. In addition, in certain scenes in the film, Ashitaka utilizes a mask, hood, and cloak to remain anonymous in the world outside his village. This suggests that there is something about himself that he wishes to keep from those strangers around him, at the time. This corresponds with the Jungian idea of the Persona, the simplistic 'mask' that one presents to the world, in order to ease and simplify many social interactions and potentially conceal some aspect(s) that the individual thinks the world doesn't need to know. The symbolic nature of the Persona is accentuated when it is seen through (by the mercenary monk Jigo), showing that Jigo is an emanation of the same individual that is creating Ashitaka, and also that one cannot conceal such things (as are obscured by the Persona) from oneself. When the mask and cloak are off, it symbolizes how Ashitaka has 'let his guard down', and is dealing honestly with those characters (aspects of himself) with whom he is interacting.
There is also another factor worth interpreting in Jung's psychological fashion, which is the symbolism of Ashitaka's people, and home before the adventure begins. Initially, Ashitaka lives in an idyllic village with his people, the Emishi. As explained in the film, they were driven from the West by the Emperor, and live in seclusion and secrecy, away from their powerful oppressor, and are slowly dying out as a people. The symbolic direction aspect of this is potentially meaningful, at least to a Jungian view: Jung himself held the view that the East held people who were more in touch with the intuitive, and were more relativistic in terms of their perceptions. With Ashitaka and his people being driven from the West (the more 'rational' area) to the East (more related to the spiritual and intuitive), it matches that his own base point of view would be one of more intuition, and spiritual awareness, as it is so revealed in the story. This particular state of affairs is the opposite of what such a developmental quest usually symbolizes. The more usual approach is that of a typically grounded, materially-based person who feels that there is something lacking in their whole approach to life - something intangible, perhaps spiritual, and thusly begins to seek out this more intangible element to existence. Ashitaka's state is that of initially possessing just such intangible qualities naturally, presenting a mirror-image aspect to the more typical subject expected to be undergoing such a quest.
This environmental situation also reflects the ego-formed symbols here, as being in hiding from unpleasant things, and living sheltered and secluded in their separate lives, while something is still wrong below the surface. Though we cannot make any definite statements about the hypothetical personality undergoing this quest of trials, the nature of the setting suggests that what this individual is suppressing is something that has caused them to withdraw - something diametrically opposed to the spiritual, peaceful, and ultimately dying scenario presented in the village...
Normally the unconscious collaborates with the conscious without friction or disturbance, so that one is not even aware of its existence. But when an individual or social group deviates too far from their instinctual foundations, they then experience the full impact of unconscious forces.
Carl G. Jung, Conscious, Unconscious, and Individuation
Within the quoted essay above, Jung describes how unconscious elements will find their own expression if repressed, and will do so in such a way as to be deniable no longer. In Edward C. Whitmont's book on Jungian analysis The Symbolic Quest, the Shadow is described as "that part of the personality which has been repressed for the sake of the ego ideal." We see that part emerge quite strongly in the initial action scene of Princess Mononoke, which begins with the first symbolic appearance of those negative aspects opposite to those positive qualities which make up our hero-archetype Ashitaka.
Bursting from the cover of the forest-line is a massive, insect-like monster, seemingly made up of a writhing, rippling mass of dark-coloured worms or snakes following a single, murderous will. There is a hint as to what lies beneath this creature, as for a moment, the worm-layer erupts outward to reveal the form of a giant boar, before reforming to continue its rampage.
What Ashitaka wants to protect, this monster seems to want to destroy - in this case, Ashitaka's village, people, and Ashitaka himself. Where Ashitaka wants to reason with this creature, and treat it with respect and etiquette, this beast has only wordless fury and violence. Ashitaka tries in vain to head the thing off, and finally, when it seems that three village girls are going to be overrun by the creature, he shoots out one of its eyes with his bow and a stone-headed arrow.
This creature, and the encounter between it and Ashitaka and his village, represent the first brush with the dark side of the hypothetical personality creating all this vivid imagery. Its alien demeanor, dark colours, glowing red eyes, and unreasoning, frightening behaviour plainly symbolize all that is deemed negative and feared, projected outwards to protect the inner Ego-self from that which it does not want to be. In addition, both the water-like behaviour of the writhing eels covering the creature, and the animal-nature of the boar beneath are suggestive of origination in the unconscious, which is often typically symbolized by symbols such as water, and animal figures.
The symbolism of this entire encounter, and its resolution (of sorts) can be seen to depict this personality's budding awareness of the darkness within, and their attempts to deal with it. Trying in vain to deal with this welling fury bursting into awareness, the individual then desperately, and perhaps reseignedly, resorts to an expression of this violence themself, shown as the attack on the creature itself, which halts the creature. Only when this violence finds expressed in the Ego-self does the onrushing fury seem to cease its push to overwhelm consciousness (Ashitaka and his whole village), but not without leaving its mark on the Ego-self: before the beast finally dies, the liquid worm-layer shoots outward and catches Ashitaka's right arm, causing him great pain, and leaving a dark, scar-like mark over his forearm, which slowly grows, and stays with him until the very end. This may symbolize the consciousness becoming aware that there is some kind of anger within them, which is not under conscious control, and is indelibly a part of them that they cannot simply wish into nonexistence.
Even though the beast is destroyed, the effect remains. The village Wise Woman tells Ashitaka that he is cursed, and the mark will grow, cause him great pain, and then kill him. She also tells of how this curse was likely caused by an iron ball, found within the body of the cursed boar-god, and how Ashitaka might find some answers about his condition in the West, where a great evil is stirring, if he can "see with eyes unclouded by hate." Once he leaves, he can never return.
This aftermath of the realization of these disturbing inner qualities symbolize the awareness of the necessity for growth of the personality. Now that the peace-in-denial (village in hiding) has been so disturbed, there are things the Ego-self must come to terms with. This unconscious force seems to present itself as great anger, with the potential for self-destructive consequences (repression bordering perhaps on neurosis?). What 'he' (in pure assumption I will simply use male articles to represent the hypothetical personality) must do to avoid this damage is return to the arena of material, mundane things (the 'West' as opposed to his spiritual, peaceful 'East') and try to see (clearly, and without prejudice) what it is that creates such a negative reaction, and try to understand. The symbolic clue is the iron ball: obviously man-made, possibly a weapon. As will be discussed later, the ball may represent (to the personality) humanity's selfish, destructive nature at the cost of respect for less tangible things. And finally, once this searching begins, that particular, naive sense of peaceful spirituality can never be regained. Such is the process of growth and discovery.
Thus Ashitaka is spurred into action, in order to preserve his own existence. In The Development of Personality, Jung writes: "The only thing that moves nature is causal necessity, and that goes for human nature too. Without necessity nothing budges, the human personality least of all." If such a disturbance had not occurred for the consciousness, it might have simply stayed separate from those repressed issues, blissful and ignorant, the envy of Adam and Eve...but, as aforementioned, the unconscious will not be ignored. For our hero, it was his lot to serve as "...the symbolic means by which the emerging ego overcomes the inertia of the unconscious mind, and liberates the mature man from a regressive longing to return...", as described in Jung's Man and his Symbols.
As to its common human qualities, the character of the anima can be deduced from that of the persona. Everything that should normally be in the outer attitude, but is conspicuously absent, will invariably be found in the inner attitude.
Carl G. Jung, Definitions 
The title character of the movie, also named 'San', fits the profile of Anima for our developing personality. The Anima, according to Jung, is the female 'inner nature' of the male personality, typically embodying those elements considered to more properly belong to the female gender. When we examine Ashitaka, we see how this holds true for San: while he is peaceful in approach, she is violent in hers. He is polite and socialized, and she is terse and antisocial (except with her wolf-family). He desires peace for the long-term, and she strives for the death of her enemies, seemingly without regard for eventualities.
There is also the aspect of Anima as reflective of romantic interest for the personality in question: seemingly the 'ideal' to which he is drawn, almost against his will. Ashitaka seems enchanted by his first sight of the wolf-girl, and continues to hold her in high esteem throughout the rest of the story. He saves her life at great cost to himself in IronTown, and calls her 'beautiful' even in the face of her threat to kill him. He even gifts her with a crystal pendant, which a village girl gave to him (as a token to remind him of them) during his exit from the Emishi village.
As revealed in the storyline, the infant San, abandoned by her parents, was raisedby the wolf-god Moro and her brood, which San now considers to be her own, only family. She rejects her humanity, and seems bent on killing Lady Eboshi of IronTown, to stop the destruction of the forest by the expansionist human community. These views suggest that inwardly the personality feels not only separate from 'humanity', but perhaps abandoned by it as well. In the irrational, emotional style of the Anima, so arises the desire to destroy these nonintuitive, nonspiritual qualities which cause such distress. No connection between them and the personality is admitted.
This hatred is so strong that it, too, borders on the self-destructive on at least three points: symbolically, at least, the Anima is willing to kill Lady Eboshi, Ashitaka, and even herself to achieve her goal; and since they are all emanations from the same personality, this is not a healthy thing. The personality seems to be harbouring some feelings of self-hatred, which the Ego-self seems unwilling to accept. Ashitaka wants peace, not the death that San would bring. Clearly, some reconciliation between the conscious and unconscious must take place for a happy end to this story.
Within IronTown's walls, Ashitaka forces an end to a duel between Lady Eboshi and San, who invaded the town to kill the Lady. As the spectral worms of his curse float about him, he proclaims how the anger is within all of them, and will destroy them all if the conflict does not cease. He subdues both combatants and exits with San, being gravely wounded in the process, escaping through sheer will and curse-enhanced strength.
This fits with Whitmont's chapter on the Anima in The Symbolic Quest: the conscious self will try to deal with the Anima with will or force, but this does not result in integration. The turning point in this process is one of despair that the Ego-self cannot control the Anima, and only acceptance of her as an independent personality ends the conflict.The Ego-self Ashitaka is wounded and exhausted by trying to control his battling values by will alone. Only through the dialogue with San when he lies helpless before her does she become his ally, of a sort, protecting him from the Ape tribe when it appears (representing even deeper levels of the unconscious which threaten to overcome the Ego-self), and fighting alongside him in the chaos to come. This is positive sign of her process of integration with the Ego-self.
If an individual has wrestled seriously enough and long enough with the anima... the unconscious again changes its dominant character and appears in a new symbolic form, representing the Self, the innermost nucleus of the psyche.
Carl G. Jung, Man and his Symbols
The Self represents the totality, and potential, of the 'whole' of the personality - that is, both conscious and unconscious aspects. Symbolically, the Self can appear as animal helpers, Wise Old people of the same gender of the person in question, inanimate or abstract objects symbolizing 'wholeness', or some idealized figure. In the film, the major examples of this archetype are Yakul, Ashitaka's faithful (and clever) red elk steed, the Emishi village Wise Woman, Jigo the treacherous 'monk', the crystal dagger token, and the Forest Spirit itself.
Yakul bore our hero throughout the majority of the film (until he is wounded andleft in the care of the IronTowners), and remained unquestionably faithful to his master, staying with Ashitaka when our Hero lay injured, in the forest. The elk also seemed to communicate with other animals, helping to convince them of Ashitaka's earnestness, when he was trying to ask for their help. A clearer example of 'helpful animal' is hard to imagine.
The Wise Woman from the village presented Ashitaka with the clues necessary to begin his quest, and suits all qualities of the Self-archetype but one: her gender. Perhaps this can be explained by a mixing of the pre-realized Anima qualities, with her representing the knowledgeable-seeming, stay-at-home aspect while Ashitaka newly contained the answer-seeking, far-ranging qualities.
Jigo, the 'humble monk' who guides our Hero on his way to suit his own purposes, represents a deeper aspect of the Self. His moral ambiguity could be confusing as to what exactly he represents, but Jung wrote that the designs which our unconscious follows are unfathomable, and it cannot be determined whether the actions are for good or ill. It is not uncommon for these figures to "show all the signs of duplicity, if not of outright malice." However, in his 'using' Ashitaka to get close to the Forest Spirit, he steered our Hero to IronTown, and into a final confrontation with the symbols of the Self (the Spirit in the forest and the resulting upheaval), which reveal a motive towards development of the personality after all. When speaking of Jung's archetypes, Robert Van de Castle writes that once engaged with the Self-archetype, "one senses that some larger creative force is leading the way, as though a hidden plan were being followed." Such a plan is most evident with Jigo's machinations.
The crystal dagger serves as a symbol of the Self, and a hint as well. Because it appeared so early in the story, just after the initial Shadow encounter, it served to foreshadow (no pun intended) the nature of the task that was set before our Hero. Crystal often serves to represent the unification of opposites - matter and spirit and here symbolizes how the Ego-self must work to unite its present spiritual nature with its neglected, more material/physical side.
While the Forest Spirit (along with his little naked spirit-representatives the Kodama) is obviously a symbol of the Self (grandly powerful creature, elements both of animals and humans, symbolizing the cycle of life and death), paradoxically it contains the negative aspects of the Self for Ashitaka - not necessarily the darker, 'evil' nature, but those elements which the Ego-self may be over-identifying with, to his ultimate detriment. Ashitaka was expecting to be cured of his curse by the Forest Spirit, but though his life was regained after being shot in IronTown (the exhausted Ego-self was rejuvenated by reflecting on his ideals and reminded why he was questing), the curse-marks remained with him. This was the symbolization of how the Ego-self realizes that the answers were not to be found with this projection (for this is what it was) of his ideal Self, which epitomized the values held by the personality: the spirituality and separation from humanity's coarser points. It is discovered, however, that this figure is not the solution for the problem presented here, which is the issue of anger at these material, human actions.
[Miyazaki] peopled this town with characters from outcast groups and oppressed minorities who rarely, if ever, appear in Japanese films. And he made them yearning, ambitious and tough, embodying many of the same qualities which have been valued so highly in frontier life yet have been so devastating to the environment.
- from the official Princess Mononoke website at http://www.princess-mononoke.com
The real answers for Ashitaka did not come from the Forest Spirit at all, as he might have expected. Instead, his visit to IronTown served as the Ego-self's delving into the unconscious realm, showing him the elements necessary to counterbalance the attributes of spirituality, separation, and stagnation within the character of Ashitaka. Here, he is presented with ambition, material concerns, and the desire to grow and thrive, potentially at the expense of other things. As well, he is witness to a variety of role-reversals from what he would otherwise expect: a woman in charge of such a place. Lepers and brothel girls working willingly, and hard for this woman, her vision of expansion, and the betterment of their lives. All of this serves to shatter Ashitaka's preconceptions of such a place as being necessarily evil and destructive.
Lady Eboshi herself is a complex character, with grand plans, and a complicated personality. She does not easily correspond to a Jungian archetype in this particular case. If anything, she serves as a mirror-image to the person of Ashitaka. Does this make her another Anima-figure? Not exactly. Like Ashitaka, she is polite and thoughtful, but about things that differ from Ashitaka's interests. She is considerate and protective of others, but those 'others' are strictly those humans under her care. However, she is capable of making sacrifices to further her goals (such as abandoning the men lost in the caravan attack as likely dead, and letting the people of IronTown defend itself while she hunted the Forest Spirit), and is aware of the abiguity of the nature of good and evil. These suggest a more mature character than Ashitaka, and a problem to identify.
Even in regard to 'types', Eboshi (ESTJ) is diametrically opposed to Ashitaka (INFP). He is relatively introverted (focusing more on the inner world of feelings and impressions than the outer world of things and people), intuitive (trusting of the veracity of his own impressions, and those of others, such as Yakul), more feeling-oriented (basing his judgements on personal values), and perceiving (seems unperturbed by new experiences). Conversely, Eboshi seems more extraverted, with her goals resting on people and things, sensing (she focuses more on her immediate reality, and things she can touch and see), thinking (being task-oriented and logic-using), and judging (preferring to have a plan, and an organized area around her).
IronTown represents the physical, material, and growth-oriented nature of the personality which had been neglected in the archetype of Ashitaka and his dying Eboshi village, which identifies it as the repressed unconscious contents of our hypothetical personality. These aspects contradicted the Ego-ideal values that Ashitaka held, and so the internal conflict created anger at these elements. This was symbolized by the effects of the curse on the creatures so affected: the transformation into a creature of anger, brought about by the wounding by an iron bullet from the guns of the IronTowners, used to clear the forest so they could continue mining for ore.
This is not the expected representation of the unconscious for someone who delves within. What one might normally expect of such a visit would be an atmosphere more like the spirit-laden forest that Ashitaka traverses so easily. Underneath the Ashitaka-ego, though, lurk the seeds of purely human action in the physical realm, with little regard for the importance of spiritual things. These are the elements which must be reconciled, and are the reverse of the usual, 'expected' spiritual quest.
Lady Eboshi is not so easily interpreted, due to her depth of character and contrasexual nature. She seems to represent the Opposite Ego-ideal, with aspects that could be attributed to each of the archetypes: opposite-but-similar nature to Shadow, same gender as the Anima, and developed form of the Self. She could represent a reflection of the whole psyche, showing the personality a 'what-if' scenario to aid in the Ego-self's quest to accept those qualities which it would otherwise deem unacceptable, perhaps including gender issues. Eboshi embodies (ensymbols?) a 'what might have been' to what Ashitaka is in this story. Jungian views alone cannot account for this super-'archetype' of the Lady Eboshi.
An incessant stream of fantasies had been released, and I did my best not to lose my head but find some way to understand these strange things. I stood helpless before an alien world; everything in it seemed difficult and incomprehensible... One thunderstorm followed another.
Carl G. Jung, Memories, Dreams, Reflections
Once issues are confronted and illusions are challenged, it may seem that reality itself is falling to pieces around oneself, until the final confrontation with the Self. This matches with the final sequence of events in Princess Mononoke, as well. The final confrontations and realizations occur in the midst of symbolic battles, representing the various conflicts within the personality at this point in the quest, trying to make new sense out of it all.
While the final conflicts rage around him, Ashitaka attempts to set things right. A force of boars fails to defeat the IronTowners in a final, desperate battle. Lady Eboshi and Jigo pursue them into the forest, hoping to be led to the Forest Spirit, which Eboshi wants dead so she can continue her industrial expansion into the surrounding area, and Jigo desires so he can take the head for a vast bounty. While they are away, IronTown falls under seige by Lord Asano, a greedy warlord who desires the riches of the town. Ashitaka works to get Eboshi back to save IronTown, and stop the hunting down of gods and spirits, wanting everyone to live in peace.
While the personality struggles to consciously accept the reality represented by IronTown, and the realization that its Ego-ideal (the Forest Spirit) was based on an illusion, it seems that unconscious forces from everywhere are descending upon their mind. The unconscious battles against the concept of material reality and human ambition that the consciousness holds (i.e. IronTown). The Ego-self labours for internal peace, perhaps trying vainly to put everything back where it was before.
Various characters are incapacitated or die during the next, chaotic section. Ashitaka fails to prevent Eboshi from shooting the Forest Spirit's head off, but recovers San. Jigo runs off with the head, and the body grows into a black, gooey giant which kills all it touches, and searches for its missing part. In the action that ensues, Ashitaka battles with Jigo for possession of the head, and IronTown is destroyed by the destructive floods of goo from the headless giant spirit-body. Ashitaka and San join to return the head to the goo spirit, and are engulfed by it. The giant form rises into the dawn light, and falls, exploding and disappearing, leaving the human characters alive amidst a new growth of green over all the ruin.
The Ego-self cannot prevent the new realizations from shattering his illusion of his ideal - the Forest Spirit - no matter the pain it causes. The consciousness tries to fight this chaos, not realizing until afterwards that it was necessary to tear down all the old preconceptions to allow the new, truer ideas to take root. This also corresponds to the last stage of the quest - the surrender to the unconscious forces (even if it was because the Ego thought that it would set things right again) and consequent rebirth to a new reality.
In the aftermath, Ashitaka, his curse-marks all but gone, decides to help an injured Lady Eboshi rebuild IronTown, while promising to visit San in the forest from time to time, even though they cannot be together. Eboshi pledges a 'better town' than before. San thinks the Forest Spirit is dead, but Ashitaka says that it is 'all around', in a metaphorical manner equating it to life itself. A resigned Jigo sighs, "Well, you can't win against fools," taking it all rather well. The story is done.
The Ego-self stands in a new point-of-view. The previous illusions and preconceptions of reality are gone, and the Ego-self can go on, unthreatened by its previous irrational anger, and accepting its place in reality. The reminder reminds that there is still a Shadow, but now that its motives are somewhat understood, it is le=ss likely that it will threaten to overrrun the conscious mind again. The Spirit Princess (Mononoke, from the Japanese) has been demystified and integrated as an element of the personality, and the repressed hatred and prejudices against the things which Lady Eboshi and IronTown represented have been brought to light. The Self of Jigo remains himself, being representative of an ideal and a vast unconscious store that can never be totally known, but having finished his job of creating the confrontation between Ego-self and big Self (the Forest Spirit). The quest is done, for now.
The story of Ashitaka in the film Princess Mononoke seems to be a symbolic quest, as described by Jungian concepts of development of the personality, but with a bit of a reversal: the questor strove to integrate an already-existing state of high intuitive and spiritual development, albeit stagnant, with the neglected material, progressive, and quite humanocentric elements of life. The personality in question seemed to come to terms with both these elements, and their feelings for them which led, perhaps, to their repression in the first place. Rich with symbolism, Jungian archetypal analysis for the characters and situations were straightforward except for the character of Lady Eboshi, who seemed to transcend the 'mere archetype' function that Jungian analysis would apply.
There is much more to the interpretation of this film than could possibly ever be covered here. The minute details of visual or behavioural aspects are so prevalent, and so potentially deliberate and symbolic that years could be taken with this film alone. Another point of view for the analysis of this film as a symbolic quest comes to mind, as well. What if the reversal of roles involved were total? What if one could strive to interpret this story as that of the arising of unconscious elements (headed by Ashitaka) coming to be realized by the conscious mind (going to IronTown), whose Ego-self is actually Lady Eboshi? Such things show the richness and quality of such stories and films as being so communicative of ideas and ideals. When Jung hastily concluded that such things as movies may be diversions for the masses, but leave their audiences inevitably "exhausted and disenchanted", it is patently obvious that he had not seen Princess Mononoke.
Jung, Carl G. Man and his Symbols. Edited by Carl Jung and M. -L. von Franz (Doubleday & Co. Inc., Garden City, New York, 1964), p. 123.
 Jung, Carl G. "Problems in Alchemy" in The Essential Jung. Introduced by Anthony Storr (Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1983), pp. 257-8.
 Jung, "Conscious, Unconscious, and Individuation" in The Essential Jung. p. 219.
 Whitmont, Edward C. The Symbolic Quest - Basic Concepts of Analytical Psychology (Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1978 [first paperback]), p. 160
 Class notes from Freud and Jung on Religion, 86:279 at Brandon University, Prof. Susan Medd, 2001
 Jung, "The Development of Personality" in The Essential Jung, p. 197.
 Jung, Man and his Symbols, pp. 118-120.
 Jung, "Definitions" in The Essential Jung, p. 102.
 Whitmont, p. 199.
 Jung, Man and his Symbols, p. 196.
 Jung, "Phenomenology of the Spirit in Fairytales" in The Essential Jung, p. 126.
 Van de Castle, Robert L. Our Dreaming Mind (Ballantine Books, New York, 1994), p. 153.
 Jung, Man and his Symbols, p. 209.
 Ibid, p. 216.
 from The Myth of Princess Mononoke and Miyazaki's Vision on the official website: http://www.princess-mononoke.com
 Report form for Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (tm) (Consulting Psychologists Press Inc. Copyright 1976, 1987 Isabel Briggs Myers)
 Jung, Carl G. Memories, Dreams, Reflections, recorded and edited by Anelia Jaffe, translated by Richard and Clara Winston (Pantheon Books, 1963 [Second Printing]), pp. 176-7.
 Jung, Man and his Symbols, p. 212.
Princess Mononoke, Miramax 1999 (North American release). Original story and screenplay by Hayao Miyazaki. Adapted by Neil Gaiman.
Jung, Carl G. Man and his Symbols. Edited by Carl Jung and M.-L. von Franz. Doubleday & Company Inc., Garden City, New York, 1964.
Jung, Carl G. Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Recorded and edited by Anelia Jaffe, translated from the German by Richard and Clara Winston. Pantheon Books, 1963 (Second Printing)
Jung, Carl G. From "Definitions" (pp. 97-105), From "The Phenomenology of the Spirit in Fairytales" (pp. 125-7), "The Development of Personality" (pp.191-210), "Conscious, Unconscious, and Individuation" (pp. 212-226), "Introduction to the Religious and Psychological Problems of Alchemy"(pp.253-287), in The Essential Jung. Introduced by Anthony Storr. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1983.
Van de Castle, Robert L. Our Dreaming Mind. Ballantine Books, New York, 1994.
Whitmont, Edward C. The Symbolic Quest - Basic Concepts of Analytical Psychology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1978 (First Paperback).
From The Myth of Princess Mononoke and Miyazaki's Vision on the official Princess Mononoke website, http://princess-mononoke.com
Report Form for Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(tm). Consulting Psychologists Press Inc. Copyright 1976, 1987 Isabel Briggs Myers.
Class notes from Freud and Jung on Religion, 86:279 at Brandon University, Prof. Susan Medd, 2001.